TIME FOR EQUALITY AT WORK. Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.

TIME FOR EQUALITY AT WORK. Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work.

Autor/-ka: International Labour Organisation

Rok pierwszego wydania: 2003

Rodzaj dokuementu: raport

Rodzaj danych: ilościowe i jakościowe

Rodzaj badania: analiza problemowa

Link do publikacji: Link do publikacji

Time for equality at work to czwarty Raport (Global Report), który powstał pod auspicjami Międzynarodowej Organizacji Pracy. Przedstawiono w nim badania nad różnymi formami dyskryminacji w miejscu pracy zidentyfikowanymi i uznanymi za konieczne do zwalczenia zarówno międzynarodowo jak i w poszczególnych krajach. Eliminacja dyskryminacji jest kluczowa niezależnie od cech jednostkowych, wpływu kulturowego, przekonań etc., jeśli jednostki mają mieć prawo do pełnego decydowania o swoim funkcjonowaniu na rynku pracy, rozwijaniu swoich talentów i umiejętności oraz byciu odpowiednio wynagradzanym.
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Executive summary


Part I. From principle to reality

1. Growing international recognition of the need to eliminate discrimination in the world of work

- The ILO: A key player in building international consensus
- Social mobilization and organization: The drive behind  international recognition and commitment

2. Discrimination: What should be eliminated and why?

- What is discrimination?
- Discrimination in employment and occupation: What work situations are covered?
- Types of discrimination
- What does not constitute discrimination
- Why does discrimination persist?
- The role of labour market institutions and processes
- Denying or downplaying discrimination
- Why it is important to eliminate discrimination at work
- The link between discrimination and poverty

3. The changing face of discrimination at work

- Racial discrimination: Continuity and change
- Religious discrimination: The need for better scrutiny and understanding
- The challenge of eliminating discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS
- Discrimination on the grounds of disability
- Age as a determinant of discrimination in the labour market
- Multiple discrimination: The accumulation of deprivation

Part II. Selected trends and policy issues

1. Gender inequalities in the labour market as a proxy for sex-based discrimination at work

- Discrimination at entry to the labour market
- Discrimination in occupation
- Determinants of occupational segregation
- Trends in occupational segregation
- Discrimination in remuneration
- Where does the problem lie and why is it important to tackle it?
- Determinants of discrimination in remuneration
- Trends in discrimination in remuneration
- Disparities in earnings based on race
- The minimum wage

2. Policy issues and interventions

- Legislation: An indispensable first step
- Shifts in legal approaches to combat discrimination and promote equality
- Public procurement policies: A new instrument to promote equality?
- Enforcement, monitoring and promotion are crucial for sustained change
- Closing the gap: Affirmative action
- Has affirmative action brought about the intended results?
- The importance of gathering the right data
- Technical and financial considerations
- Political and ideological orientations
- Concerns about privacy
- Developing a measuring tool
- Educational and vocational training help inclusion
- The role of employment services
- Balancing work and family
- Why is it important to get the work/family balance right?
- Fiscal measures
- Shortening work schedules
- Maternity protection and parental leave
- Family-friendly arrangements promoted by enterprises

Part III. The ILO and the social partners in action

1. The ILO: A long history of combating discrimination at work

- ILO action is rooted in the international labour standards
- The ILO and racial discrimination: Paving the way for institutional change
- The ILO in post-apartheid South Africa and Namibia: Building an affirmative action policy
- Brazil: Campaigning for equality in respect of diversity
- From a focus on women workers to gender mainstreaming
- Reducing the rights deficit by promoting women workers’ rights
- More and better jobs for women
- An enabling environment for women entrepreneurs
- Empowering women through micro-finance programmes
- Breaking through the glass ceiling
- Sexual harassment
- Tackling gender inequalities in remuneration
- The trafficking of human beings
- Decent work for “invisible” workers: Homeworkers
- Gender mainstreaming and the gender audit
- Linking poverty and social exclusion to discrimination at work
- Mainstreaming gender in anti-poverty policies and programmes
- Participation in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper process: A window of opportunity to promote equality
- Public investment programmes: Promoting inclusive approaches and respect of equality standards
- Challenging discriminatory practices through crisis response
- Targeted interventions: A focus on disadvantaged and vulnerable groups
- Promoting indigenous and tribal peoples’ rights and livelihoods
- Addressing discrimination based on disability and HIV/AIDS status through codes of practice
- Decent treatment of migrant workers

2. Employers’ and workers’ organizations: Key partners in achieving equality

- Voice and representation: Enabling conditions
- Trade union efforts to reach out to workers without representation
- Employers’ associations: Raising the representation of discriminated-against groups
- Voice and representation is key to eliminating poverty and social exclusion
- Collective bargaining: A conduit to equality?
- Gender equality bargaining:
- What have we learnt?
- Equality bargaining beyond gender
- Enterprises mobilizing for equality
- The challenge of small and medium-sized enterprises
- Beyond national initiatives and national actors

Part IV. Towards an action plan to eliminate discrimination at work

1. The way forward

- Defining the needs for further action by the ILO
- Three strategies to set the wheels in motion
- Knowledge
- Advocacy
- Services

2. Conclusion


1. ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and its Follow-up

2. Table of ratifications of ILO Conventions (Nos. 100 and 111)

3. Table 1. Changes in some features of women’s participation in the labour market – selected countries

- Table 2. Unemployment differentials between women and men – selected countries

- Table 3. Index of dissimilarity (ID) and gender-dominated non-agricultural occupations for selected countries

- Table 4. Findings from selected studies using the Oaxaca-Blinder approach: Proportion of the gender pay gap (GPG) attributed to labour market discrimination

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